Environmental audit is a technique for integrating the interest for the industry and the environment, so that these could be mutually supported . This technique is basically a part of industry ' s internal processes in meeting there responsibilities towards better environment.
This is a management tool comprising a systematic, documented, periodic, and objective evaluation of how well the management system's are performing with the aim of:.
Waste prevention & reduction, Assessing compliance with regulatory requirements and Facilitating control of environmental practices by a company's management and for placing environmental information in the public domain.
In Industries like the chemical industries, the raw materials are used in excess of stoichiometric requirements because of the limitation on practically achievable operational efficiency and the raw materials purity. This excess raw material unless recovered, cause environmental pollution. This may be in the form of gaseous, liquid, and solid phases. The waste generation may vary hourly, daily or seasonally. In this growing complexity of problems, the concept of waste prevention and reduction need to be worked out more effectively.
The environmental audit helps in pollution control, improved production, safety and health and conservation of natural resources and hence its overall objective can be stated as achieving of sustainable developments.
However for conducting environmental audit, objectives are to be defined clearly, otherwise the audit procedure will be subject to varying interpretations which may yield and contribute to differences in approach thereby influencing the end results.
But generally the industries are avoiding the environmental auditing procedure and considering it a formality, and not taking any interest in the actual monitoring, for example flue gas coming out from the chimney is giving the performance of the boiler and the quality of the fuel. After getting the flue gas monitoring report industry can improve the boiler efficiency. In the same way industry can prepare the water balance, where and how much quantity required or discharged, and where and how much quantity can be recycled. Ultimately it will save the withdrawal of ground water, resulting the cost saving i. e. reduction in the pumping cost and conservation of our valuable natural resources also.
Don' t think environment audit is a mandatory requirement only, but it is very helpful to assess the performance of the technical capabilities. In these days, concept of clean technology has become important, it can be evaluated very well with the help of environment audit.
CONVERSION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND INTO NON - AGRICULTURAL LAND ( N.A. Permission ) :-The entrepreneur or industrialist can select the site for large scale industrial project considering the requirements given in 'Environmental guidelines for siting of the industry' and then follow the procedure. It is therefore necessary to submit the application to concerned Revenue Authority for the conversion of Agriculture land into Non-agriculture land. If the plot is located in the Industrial Area developed by State Industrial Development Corporation then there is no requirement of above permission.
NO OBJECTION CERTIFICATE :- No Objection Certificate is basically a location clearance certificate from environmental pollution control point of view. To obtain No Objection Certificate from state or central pollution control board, the applicant required to furnish all relevant details in a prescribed form. Alongwith this form, the applicant is required to submit details of effluent treatment plant, air pollution control equipment and an undertaking to follow pollution control measures before commencing production. The treatability studies and design details of pollution control measures should also be submitted alongwith NOC application.
ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE CERTIFICATE FOR CONVERSION OF LETTER OF INTENT INTO INDUSTRIAL LICENCE :- To obtain the environmental clearance, the entrepreneur has to submit the following details to the Environment Impact Assessment Authority :-
CONSENT UNDER THE WATER ( PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION ) ACT - 1974 :-As per the provision of the section 25 & 26 of the Water ( Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Act - 1974, the industry has to obtain consent of the Pollution Control Board for creating or continuing an outlet and bringing it into use for the discharge of effluent. In case the industry is existing before the commencement of this Act, Section 26 is applicable while for the proposed industry ( after Commencement of the Act ), Section 25 is applicable.
To fulfill the statutory requirement of the section 25 & 26 of the Water Act - 1974 ( to obtain consent of the Board ), the industry is required to submit application in prescribed form. Alongwith other details specified in this form, the applicant is required to furnish the following documents :-
The consent application should be signed by Competent authority. Sometimes the industries provide common effluent treatment facilities and thus the outlet for the discharge of effluent becomes common. In such cases, all concerned industries are required to make common application and it should be signed by competent authority of each industrial unit.
After the grant of consent the Board starts monitoring. The industry is required to provide necessary arrangements for inspection of effluent treatment plant, effluent sample collection, flow measurement etc. The industry is also required to submit analysis reports of effluent at a frequency specified in the consent order.
As per the provision of Section 31, of the Act, the industry is required to intimate the Board, the occurrence of accidental discharge or other unforeseen act or event which is likely to pollute stream or well or any other receiving body. The Board may issue prohibitory order restraining or prohibiting the industry from discharging polluting matter.
CONSENT UNDER THE AIR ( PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION ) ACT - 1981 :- To obtain consent of the Board, the industry has to submit application in prescribed form and the list of specified industries is also given in this form.
Along with other details specified in this form, the applicant is required to furnish the following documents :-
After the grant of consent the Board starts monitoring to verify the compliance of consent conditions. The industry is required to provide necessary arrangements for collection of gaseous sample ( stack monitoring arrangement ) and inspection of pollution control equipment. The industry is also required to furnish relevant details to the Board as and when asked for as per the provision of Section 25 of the Act.
The industry is required to intimate the Board, the fact of occurrence or the apprehension of occurrence of excessive emission of pollutants due to accident or other unforeseen act or event.
PAYMENT OF WATER CESS UNDER THE PROVISION OF THE WATER ( PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION ) ACT - 1977 :- The objective of this Act is to arrange the financial resources of the Board and to encourage the industries to provide effluent treatment plant to claim the rebate. The Act provides for the levy and collection of cess on water consumption. The following procedure is required to be followed to fulfill the requirements of the provisions of this act :-
The rate of Water Cess varies based on the purpose for which water is consumed. There is a provision for getting rebate of 25 % of the Cess amount assessed where a consumer installs effluent treatment plant and operate in to treat the effluent and render it to conform to the standards specified in the consent order issued under the Water Act - 1974.
After the implementation of GST, the water cess act 1977 has been dissolved which was earlier keeping an eye on the water resources under the usage of various civic and industry bodies.
THE ENVIRONMENT ( PROTECTION ) ACT - 1986 :-
ENVIRONMENT STATEMENT REPORT :-Under the Rules ' The Environment ( Protection ) Act - 1986 ' & ' Amendment Rules - 1993 ', the industry has to submit Environment Statement in a prescribed form by 30th Sept. for the financial year ending the 31st March.
THE HAZARDOUS AND OTHER WASTE (MANAGEMENT & TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTS) RULES - 2016 :-As per the provision of Section 6, 8 & 25 of 'Environment ( Protection ) Act - 1986 ( 29 of 1986 ) ' the Central Government enacted " The Hazardous Waste ( Management & Handling ) Rules - 1989 ". The industry has to obtain the authorisation for collection / reception / treatment / transport / storage / disposal of hazardous waste. The application should be made in the prescribed form.
THE NOISE POLLUTION (REGULATION & CONTROL) (Amendment) RULES - 2010 :-Industry should adopt Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise as 75 dB in Day time and 70 dB in night time.
THE BATTERIES (MANAGEMENT AND HANDLING ) RULES, 2001 :-The rule shall apply to every manufacturer, importer, re-conditioner, assembler, dealer, recycler, auctioneer, consumer, and bulk consumer involved in manufacture, processing, sale, purchase and use of batteries or components thereof.
THE BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT (Amendment) RULES, 2018 :- Safe disposal of bio-medical waste. It requires the authorisation from state pollution control board.
THE E-WASTE (Management) Amendment RULES, 2018 :- Safe disposal of E-waste. It requires the authorisation from state pollution control board.
THE PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT Amendment RULES, 2016 :- Safe disposal of Plastic waste. It requires the authorisation from state pollution control board.
THE RECYCLED PLASTIC MANUFACTURE AND USAGE RULES, 1999 :-It requires the permission from the state pollution control board under certain conditions.
THE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES ( MANAGEMENT AND HANDLING) RULES, 2015 AS AMENDED THE CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES, 2016 :-Safe disposal of the domestic solid waste and every municipal authority is responsible for collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste.
THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT RULES 2016 : All details as per the Act.
PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS REGULATIONS 1960 AS AMENDMENT (2001, 2008, 2016, 2017 & 2018) : All details as per the Act.
THE PUBLIC LIABILITY INSURANCE ACT - 1991 :-The Public Liability Insurance Act - 1991 ( Central Act 6 of 1991 ) as amended in 1992 ( 11 of 1992 ) is one of the most important legislative measures enacted in India on the issues related to accidents involving hazardous substances and safeguard of interests of general public.
THE CHEMICAL ACCIDENTS (EMERGENCY PLANNING, PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE) RULES, 1996 :-It covers the accident due to the handling of any hazardous chemical. It requires the Off - Site emergency plan, On site emergency plan and emergency preparedness.
THE MANUFACTURE USE, IMPORT, EXPORT AND STORAGE OF HAZARDOUS MICRO - ORGANISMS / GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ORGANISMS OR CELLS (Amendment) Rules, 2010 : All details as per the Act.
THE MANUFACTURE, STORAGE AND IMPORT OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL (Amendment) Rules, 2000 : All details as per the Act.
OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES (REGULATION) RULES, 2014 :-Ozone depleting substance produced or consumed as specified by the government (MOEF) is covered under this Act.
THE CENTRAL MOTOR VEHICLE (Eleventh Amendment) Rules 2016 :- All details as per the Act.
THE PETROLEUM ACT, 1934 (As Amendment) 2017 :- All details as per the Act.
THE INDIAN EXPLOSIVE ACT (RULES 1983) (Amendment) Rules 2017 :- All details as per the Act.
THE BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS ACT, 2016 : All details as per the Act.
The REGULATION OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS RULES, 2017 : All details as per the Act.
This is a management tool comprising a systematic, documented, periodic, and objective evaluation of how well the management system's are performing with the aim of: